The Trinity—one God in three persons—is a challenge to understand. To make matters worse, scripture contains no explicit theology of the Trinity. It does, however, speak often of God as Father, Son, and Spirit. This type of biblical language is what Witherington III and Ice study in The Shadow of the Almighty.
The authors argue that “Father” language for God is not prevalent in the Old Testament. God desired to be a Father to Israel, but Israel was unfaithful. It is only when Jesus became incarnate that God was spoken of as Father. He is the unique father of Jesus (who called him my Father). The church, having received adoption into the family of God, now calls God our Father.
The Shadow of the Almighty is a helpful survey of Father, Son, and Spirit language in scripture. The authors help to make a complex topic more accessible.
—Ben Witherington III and Laura M. Ice, The Shadow of the Almighty: Father, Son, and Spirit in Biblical Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002).